Stress Protection Action

Stress Protection Action
Stress is a phenomenon that manifests itself in our bodies in many different ways. Some of the more common symptoms of stress include problems with sleep, depression, anxiety, irritability, and lethargy. Along with the physical symptoms, the body also has more fundamental biological responses to stress. At the cellular level, stress affects our ability to properly transform glucose into energy. Beta lipa proteins build up and inhibit the passage of energy through the cell walls. This reduced energy level not only affects our ability to perform physical functions, but inhibits the proper function of all the body’s organs – including the brain.

Perhaps the single most important property of adaptogenic plants is their proven ability to combat stress in all forms. Eleutherococcus, the strongest of the adaptogenic plants, increases the body’s resistance to a variety of stressors. Experiments have conclusively demonstrated that Eleutherococcus changes the course of the primary physiological indicators of stress by reducing the activation of the adrenal cortex. Rhodiola rosea leads to an increase in the amount of basic b endorphin in the blood plasma which inhibits the hormonal changes indicative of stress. Research by the following scientists shows that adaptogens, which are an integral part of the Prime Product formulation, allow the body to more ably cope with stress, whether it is daily, extreme, acute, or chronic.

Researchers
I.I. Brekhman
O.I. Kirillov

Y. Ikeya
H. Taguchi

L.R. Galushkina
E.V. Kryukovskaya

N. Takasugi
T. Moriguchi
T. Fuwa

N. Singh
P. Verma
N. Mishra

S.I. Chernysh
V.A. Lukhtanov
S. Nishibe

H. Kinoshita

Yu. B. Lishmanov
L.V. Maslova

N. Nishiyama
T. Kamegaya
A. Iwai

S. Sanada
Y. Ida
J. Shoji
Institutes
Institute of Biologically Active Substances
Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences
Vladivostok, Russia

Tsumura Laboratory
Ibaragi, Japan

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow Medical Institute
Moscow, Russia

Central Institute of Wakunaga
Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
Hiroshima, Japan

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics
King George’s Medical College
Lucknow, India

Leningrad University
Leningrad, Russia
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Higashi Nippon Gakuen University
Hokaido, Japan

Lab. Radionucl. Method
Res. All Union Cardiol Science Centre
Tomsk, Russia

Experimental Station for Medicinal Plant Studies
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science University of Tokyo
Tokyo, Japan

Department of Pharmacognosy
Showa University
Tokyo, Japan

The Immune System
Studies show that the adaptogenic extracts included in the unique formula for Prime 1 render vital support to the immune system. For example, in one study of healthy volunteers, a general enhancement of the activation state of T lymphocyte was observed after administering Eleutherococcus. T lymphocyte cells are also called “killer cells” because they attack and destroy various viruses. Another study revealed that Eleutherococcus extract augments the phagocytic activity of the peripheral blood leukocytes and favours the reduction of pathological flora on the surface of the skin, indicating an increase in the body’s non specific resistance. The effect of adaptogens, manifested by their ability to induce the formation of endogenic interferon (intracellular development of basic anti viral proteins), reveals essential aspects of their control over the immune and non specific mechanisms which protect the body from viruses. Adaptogens exert a strong immunomodulatory influence in health test subjects and can be considered non specific immunostimulants.

Researchers Institutes
E. Lodemann University of Frankfort on Main
A. Wacker Germany

J. Lutomski Institut f. Helpflanzebforschung
P. Gorecki Poznan, Poland

J. Hajasa Pommorsche Medizinische Akademie
Szczecin, Poland

V.M. Elkin All Union Research
N.G. Zakharova Institute of Influenza
V.M. Leonov Leningrad, Russia

J.N. Fang Shanghai Institute of Materia Medical
Ch. Academy of Sciences
Shanghai, China
B. Bohn Orpegen Med. Molekularbiol.
C.T. Nebe Federal Republic of Germany
C. Birr

I.N. Lyashenko Dept. of Skin Venereology
Vinnitsa, Ukraine

V.I. Kupin USSR Academy of Medical Sciences
E.V. Polevaya Moscow, Russia
A.M. Sorokin

M.S. Kim College of Pharmacology
N.G. Lee Seoul National University
Seoul, South Korea
0
H. Wagner Institute of Pharmacology and Biology
A. Proksch University of Munich
Munich, Germany

Physical Work Capacity
Research institutions have discovered that adaptogens are vital for enhancing a person’s capacity for physical workloads. Adaptogens have been widely used in studies with workers in professions involving intense physical work strain. They significantly improve bodily functions, by enhancing the body’s ability to perform physical tasks and to recover after strenuous physical activity. In tests on 655 healthy men, all of whom were employed as flight personnel (pilots, navigators, radio operators), Eleutherococcus, Aralia, and Schizandra accelerated recovery processes following tiresome flight schedules. The subjects’ physiological state improved significantly within three hours of a flight to levels even higher than prior to the flight.

In one long range study involving 60 000 people conducted over a 10 year period at the Volzhsky Automobile Factory in Tolyatti, Russia, absence and disability were reduced by 20 – 30% after taking Eleutherococcus. A 30 – 50% decrease in cases of influenza and a general improvement in health were also noted.

Researchers Institutes
J. Hancke Swedish Herbal Institute
G. Wikman Goteborg, Sweden

A.K. Schezin Laboratory of Medical Physiological Control
V.I. Zinkovich Tolyatti, Russia
L.K. Galanova

P.P. Guhchenko Khabarovsk Medical Institute
N.K. Fruentov Khabarovsk, Russia

Mental Work Capacity
Along with the research which proved adaptogens’ value for improving physical work, research studies involving various tests of mental acuity have demonstrated that adaptogens also have the ability to increase a person’s mental work capacity. That is, they increase both the amount of mental exercise person can carry out, as well as the quality of that work.

For example, Schizandra chinensis and Rhaponticum carthamoides exerted a strong simulative influence among test subjects who displayed great improvement in reading comprehension, aptitude, and speed.Rhodiola rosea and Aralia mandshurica enhance a person’s ability for memorization and prolonged concentration. In proofreading tests, after taking Rhodiola extract, a decrease in the quantity of mistakes was observed in 88% of the experimental group, while an increase in the quantity of mistakes was observed in 54% of the control group.

Eleutherococcus senticosus, the “King” of the adaptogens, has been shown to increase mental capacity by improving reflex action, attention span, and the precision of performed work. Improvement in hearing, eyesight, and motor co-ordination was also additional benefit noted in these studies.

Researchers Institutes
A.A. Lebedev Far East Scientific Centre of the USSR Academy of Sciences
V.V. Kazakevich Vladivostok, Russia
V.D. Linderbraten
L.V. Turbina

V. Petkov Institute of Physiology
D. Yonkov Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
A. Mosharoff Sofia, Bulgaria

M.A. Gerasyuta Scientific Research
T.N. Koval Institute of Sea Transport Hygiene
Leningrad, Russia

A.S. Saratikov Tomsk Medical Institute
E.A. Krasnov Tomsk, Russia

P.P. Gubchenko Khabarovsk Medical Institute
N.K. Fruentov Khabarovsk, Russia

R.Yu. Il’uchenok Institute of Physiology
S.R. Chaplygina Novosibirsk, Russia

Performance, Endurance and Rehabilitation
Adaptogens provide the basis through which people can build up an energy reserve to be tapped when the body needs it most – under extreme physical tension and during recovery from fatigue. Test subjects administered adaptogenic extracts rapidly displayed improved indicators of energy and endurance, and athletes were able to improve greatly the results of their athletic endeavours.

In one study, under exhaustive muscle workloads, it was revealed that Rhodiola extract increased the activity of proteolytic enzymes and also significantly increased the level of protein and RNA in the skeletal muscles.
In another study involving a college baseball team, it was revealed that all four parameters of work capacity (including VO2 max, O2 pulse max, total work and exhaustion time) showed significantly larger increases when Eleutherococcus was administered than when the subjects were given a placebo. After administering Schizandra in an experiment on 140 athletes, 74% of the test subjects obtained their best results in a 3 000 metre run.

Observations were also conducted on weightlifters, wrestlers, and gymnasts. Based on the data obtained, it was concluded that Eleutherococcus extract increased physical work capacity, decreased fatigue and improved the general mental and physical state of the test subjects.In an experiment on healthy male athletes, adaptogen administration induced a 64% increase in work endurance, while a higher rate of cases with reduced blood lactate and consistently lower blood pressure was also recorded.

A study of people performing physical labour revealed that when Eleutherococcus, Rhaponticum carthamoides, and Rhodiola were administered, all test subjects showed an improvement in their general physical and mental states. There was also an improvement in functional indicators (pulse, arterial pressure, vital capacity, back muscle strength, hand endurance under static tension, co-ordination of movement) and a reduction in the duration of the recovery period in all test subjects.Through extensive experiments on swimmers, skiers, and other athletes, scientists around the world have reliably demonstrated the value of adaptogens for increasing stamina and accelerating the recovery processes after physical exertion.

Researchers Institutes
E. Ahumada Laboratorio de Farmacologia
J. Hermosilla Universidad Austral de Chile
Valdivia, Chile

V. Wyss Inst. Med. Sport A. M.
G.P. Ganzit Di Giorgio
A. Rienzi Torino, Italy

A.E. Bulanov Vladivostok Medical Institute
A.A. Sheparev Vladivostok, Russia
T.M. Agapova

K. Asano Institute of Health & Sports Sciences
T. Takahashi Tsukuba University
M. Miayshita Ibaraki, Japan

M. Kuboyama Medical Research Laboratories
H. Kuo Tokyo, Japan

B.N. Blokhin Institute of Physical Culture
Moscow, Russia

L. McNaughton Tasmanian State Institute of’ Technology
G. Egan Centre for Physical Education
G. Caelli Australia

Normalizing Effect
The adaptogenic ingredients of Prime 1 and Prime Plus have an important normalizing effect on all bodily functions. In studies of an icebreaker’s crew on extended Arctic voyage, after 4 months of sailing, Rhaponticum extract had a normalizing effect on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, leading to improved sleep, appetite, mood, general mental and physical state, and general enhancement of the functional ability of humans under working conditions.

In experiments simulating the effects of extreme changes in altitude on mountain rescue workers, the normalizing action of adaptogens on metabolic disorders occurring under such conditions was revealed. According to the data, adaptogens have a normalizing action on the synthesis of RNA during stress. Adaptogens also contribute to the normalization of protein, vitamin, and water salt metabolism. Extremes in bodily functions like high cholesterol, low haemoglobin levels, irregular sugar contents, and abnormal blood pressure may be normalized with the support of adaptogens, which activate and regulate normal and efficient blood circulation. At the same time, the use of adaptogens in no way disrupts the function of these bodily systems.

Researchers Institutes
G.N. Bezdetko Department of Physiology and Pharmacology of Adaptation
Institute of Marine Biology
Vladivostok, Russia

E.M. Mikaelyan Department of Bioorganic and Biological Chemistry
A.B. Aphrikyan Erevan Medical Institute
Erevan, Armenia

V.V. Berdyshev Vladivostok Medical Institute
Vladivostok, Russia

M.A. Gerasyuta Scientific Research Institute of Sea
T.N. Koval Transport Hygiene
S.A. Keyzer Leningrad, Russia

S.A. Brandis Mountain Rescue Laboratory
V.N. Pilovitskaya Donetsk, Ukraine

Non Specific Resistance
Adaptogens increase the body’s non specific resistance to the harmful influence of various physical factors, such as, cooling, overheating, enhanced motor activity, increased or decreased barometric pressure, and ultraviolet or ionising radiation. Adaptogens have also been shown to increase the body’s resistance to the harmful influence of both chemical and biological natures (various toxins, narcotics, hormones, foreign serums, bacteria, etc.).

Many facts concerning this kind of universal defence action have been obtained for adaptogens. In observations on sailors in the tropics, it was revealed that in 70 75% of the test subjects, Eleutherococcus decreased the manifestation of unfavourable changes in the central nervous system, thermoregulation, and hemodynamics (changes associated with the process of adaptation to an environment for which the human body is unaccustomed). Eleutherococcus also contributed to an increase in physical and mental work capacity, alleviation of tension in the function of the adrenal glands, and improvement in the functional state of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

In another study on female vegetable farmers, the body’s resistance to harmful environmental factors increased, the general physical and mental state improved, and work productivity increased by 23.5% after taking Eleutherococcus. Eleutherococcus also contributed to better recovery after intense physical work.Adaptogens also possess an anti alcoholic action, decreasing the desire for alcohol. In one observation involving 148 people, the favourable anti alcoholic action of Eleutherococcus was noted in 73% of the test subjects in the experimental group.

Researchers Institutes
V.V. Berdyshev Vladivostok Medical Institute
Vladivostok, Russia

A.E. Bulanov Department of Physiology and Pharmacology of the
M.I. Polozhentseva Institute of Marine Biology
Vladivostok, Russia

S.A. Nikitin Volgograd Medical Institute
T.A. Orobinskaya Volgograd, Russia
T.N. Serkacheva

Ehud Ben Hur Nuclear Research Centre
Beer Sheva, Israel

Anti Oxidant – Anti Ageing
As a part of their normal function, body cells make toxic molecules called free radicals – each molecule is missing an electron. Because the free radical molecule “wants” its full electron complement, it reacts with any molecule from which it can take an electron. When the free radical takes an electron from certain key components in the cell, such as fat, protein, or DNA molecules, it damages the cell in a process known as oxidation. In addition to free radicals that occur naturally in the body, they also occur as the result of environmental influences. These influences may include ultraviolet radiation or air borne pollutants such as cigarette smoke – both of which contribute to cell oxidation and may accelerate the ageing process.

Antioxidants, or oxidation inhibitors, that occur naturally in the human body and in certain foods may block some of this damage by donating electrons to stabilize and neutralize the harmful effects of the free radicals. Adaptogens also possess an antioxidant action. Based on biochemical analyses, adaptogens cause a reliable decrease in total cholesterol and b lipoproteids, and increase the level of hydrophilic and lipid antioxidants in the blood. In studies by Japanese scientists, it was found that Gomisin N (a component isolated from Schizandra fruit) is a more active antioxidant than dl a tocopherol (vitamin E).

Researchers Institutes
S. Toda Laboratory of Chemistry
M. Kimura Kansai College of Acupuncture Medicine
M. Ohnishi Japan

Y. Ikeya Tsumura Laboratory
H. Taguchi Ibaragi, Japan
H. Mitsuhashi

S.I. Chernysh Institute of Biology of the Leningrad University
Leningrad, Russia

O.N. Voskresensky Poltava Medical Institute
T.A. Devyatkina Poltava, Ukraine

Cardiovascular System
Adaptogenic extracts have a favourable influence on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, providing important support for people carrying out physical workloads. For example, athletes receiving Aralia mandshurica and working out heavily experienced a lower demand on the cardiovascular system. In another observation of shift workers in the Siberian gas industry, the favourable influence of Eleutherococcus on the dynamics of the cardiovascular system and its protective effects during severe climatic and working conditions were also registered. Adaptogens render a marked cardio-protective effect during painful emotional stress, contributing to a reduction in the adrenore-activity of the heart and the degree of stress damage to the myocardium.


Researchers Institutes
M.L. Kolomievsky Second Medical Institute
N.I. Pirogov Moscow, Russia

L.G. Khetagorova Department of Pathology and Physiology
Yu. A. Romanov N.I. Pirogov Medical Institute
Moscow, Russia

Z. Yongxin National Institute for Pharmaceutical Control of Biological Products
Y. Kedong Beijing, China

Yu. B. Lishmanov Lab. Radionucl. Method
L.V. Maslova Res. All Union Cardiol Sci. Centre
Tomsk, Russia

T.N. Afanas’eva Minsk Medical Institute
A.A. Krivchik Minsk, Byelorussia

D.I. Dyakov Khabarovsk Medical Institute
Khabarovsk, Russia

A.P. Shornikov Laboratory of Medical Biological Problems of the Far North
S.V. Sokolov Surgut, Russia

Eyesight, Colour Perception, Hearing, and Vestibular Functions

The adaptogenic plants which comprise the fundamental ingredients of Prime Products have been shown through extensive laboratory study and clinical trials to support and improve the function of the sensory organs.

In one study, 111 205 physiological tests were conducted to reveal the influence of Eleutherococcus on members of railroad locomotive brigades. The test subjects experienced improved general physical and mental states, increased endurance, improved headache alleviation and prevention, and decreased irritability, which is often associated with this high stress occupation. The use of Eleutherococcus also led to improved vision, including increased chromatic stability, improved spectral and contrast sensitivity, improved colour differentiation, and increased long distance signal visibility – all of which are crucial to the safety and effectiveness of people in this occupation.

In another study on 156 people exposed to industrial noise, after taking Eleutherococcus, all the participants reported a marked improvement in their general physical and mental condition, an increase in productivity, an alleviation or complete elimination of ringing in the ears, and an improvement in general hearing ability. In yet another study on 65 healthy individuals, mainly air, sea, rail, and automobile commuters or employees, using Eleutherococcus extract led to alleviation or elimination of discomfort for those suffering from motion sickness and the general discomforts associated with travel.

Schizandra proves particularly valuable for sharpening the eyesight, while Aralia reliably improves perceptual acuity in skill tests. In wide trials, these natural substances have proven to be extremely valuable for professionals whose occupations bring heavy demands on the eyes, ears, and other senses. In every study, among pilots, machine operators, astronauts, and factory workers, the sensory functions have shown significant improvement under the influence of the various adaptogens.

Researchers Institutes
E.F. Beburin Institute of Biologically Active Substances of the Far East
Department of the USSR Academy of Science
Vladivostok, Russia

T.L. Sosnova All Union Institute of Rail Road Hygiene
Moscow, Russia

M.S. Trusov Far East Central Military Hospital
Khabarovsk, Russia

V.A. Sinovich Khabarovsk Medical Institute
Z.B. Akhmerova Khabarovsk, Russia

Cancer, AIDS and Eleutherococcus

Eleutherococcus senticosus (often referred to as “Siberian ginseng”), belonging to the family Araliaceae, is a distant relative of Korean or Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng). Eleutherococcus was originally used by people in the Siberian Taiga region to increase performance and quality of life and decrease infections.Based on this historical use, Eleutherococcus became the focus of clinical research in Russia during the last three decades. Today, more that 1 000 papers have been published on Eleutherococcus (primarily in Russian) and current estimates indicate that approximately 5 million people in the USSR use Eleutherococcus on a daily basis.

The primary reason for the widespread use of Eleutherococcus in Russia and its growing use here in the United States, is its ability to act as an “adaptogen”. This term, which was coined by the Russian scientists Drs Brekhman and I.V. Dardymov, describes the plant’s ability to increase resistance to stress and provide a balancing effect regardless of the direction of the condition – either excess or deficiency.

This action is based on the ability of the active components of Eleutherococcus to concentrate in the adrenal glands and support their function during times of stress. This has made Eleutherococcus particularly useful for persons under considerable daily stress – both mental and physical. Its ability to increase endurance has also made it part of the daily supplement routine of many Russian athletes.

Support for Cancer patients
Among the more clinically applicable findings in Russia with regard to Eleutherococcus has been its value as a supportive tool in the treatment of cancer. Several oncology institutes in the U.S.S.R. have reported success in improving the general health of patients with cancer and reducing the chances of metastasis (the development of secondary tumors). Even more dramatic was the ability of Eleuthero-coccus to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy in cancer patients.

One study, carried out at the Institute of Oncology in Georgia (USSR) examined the effects of daily oral supplementation of 2 cc of liquid, Eleutherococcus extract in women with a diagnosis of breast cancer. A group of 80 patients was chosen, all of whom had gone through surgery for their cancer and were receiving both chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Half the woman received the Eleutherococcus extract while the other group received no additional treatment. The patients in the Eleutherococcus group showed a significant reduction in the side effects to the radiation and chemotherapeutic treatments (i.e. nausea, dizziness, loss of appetite). The reduction in side effects to standard cancer therapy allows for higher doses of these agents to be used in difficult cases. Similar results and also a long term improvement in appetite as well as enhanced healing time were found by Dr T.M. Khatishvill in his study using Eleutherococcus with oral cancer patients.


In addition to its supportive use in cancer therapy, Eleutherococcus had also been shown to be useful adjunct in hastening the cure of chronic conditions such as pneumonia and tuberculosis. Following serious operations, it has also been shown to hasten healing time, reduce complications and shorten the length of the hospital stay.

Prevention of Viral Illness
Popular definition of Eleutherococcus as a stimulant and anti-stress agent, has clouded the growing evidence of its usefulness in the prevention of viral illness. Several studies in Russia (summarized in a paper by Dr Brekhman entitled, “Eleutherococcus: 20 years of research and clinical appli-cation”, presented May 29, 1980 at the 1st International Symposium on Eleutherococcus in Hamburg) have indicated that the use of Eleutherococcus greatly reduced the incidence of influenza and colds. In the winter of 1972 – 1973, over 1 000 workers of the Norlisk mining and smelting plant received Eleutherococcus on a daily basis. When compared to co-workers not receiving the extract, they demonstrated a greater than two-fold reduction in the incidence of influenza and acute respiratory disease.

Drs M.P. Zykov and S.F. Protasova of the Research Institute of Influenza in Leningrad have actually suggested the Eleutherococcus either be used in combination with influenza vaccinations of by itself in the prevention of influenza – particularly in high-risk populations. Also noted was a decrease in post vaccination reactions in persons supplemented with the extract. The use of Eleutherococcus appears to enhance the body’s immune response to viral attack and thus is a sensible adjunct during cold and flu season.

Immunomodulating Properties
Expanding of the adaptogenic and antiviral properties of Eleutherococcus, is new evidence (see 1987 study below) which suggests that the extract has the ability to selectively increase important components of the immune system known as lymphocytes. Lymphocytes act as the bodies primary defense against viral infection and have become the focus of study particularly with regard to HIV (human immune deficiency virus) infection. Recent research has focused on agents which possess the ability to enhance certain subsets of lymphocytes. These agents have been coined “Immunomodulators”. Eleutherococcus and Astragalus (a Chinese herb) are two identified immunomodulators from the plant kingdom.

A German clinical study (Arzheim-Forsch Drug Res, 1987) served to introduce Eleutherococcus as an immunomodulator. Thirty-six healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind study in which half the group received Eleutherococcus and the other half placebo. The study measured lymphocyte activity in the two groups. The researchers found that the Eleutherococcus group showed a general enhancement of the activation of T-Lymphocytes (i.e. T-cells) and more specifically a marked increase in T-lymphocytes of the helper inducer type. Also known as “CD4 cells”, T-helper lymphocytes trigger the body’s immune response against infection. Without them, the rest of the immune system cannot function properly. It is interesting to note that the T-lymphocytes of the helper inducer type are specifically those that decreased significantly in HIV-infection and the progression to AIDS.

The authors of this study conclude, “In view of the most recent state of knowledge, one might speculate about a positive effect of Eleutherococcus in very early stages of HIV (AIDS virus) infection by preventing or retarding the spread of the virus, mediated by a synergistic action of elevated numbers of helper and cylotoxic T-cells.”

Use in the HIV-infection
Ultimately their conclusion did not go unnoticed Dr N. Weger, a medical doctor and researcher in Germany, had a long history of work with the liquid Eleutherococcus extract used in the Russian studies.

While working with the liquid Eleutherococcus extract, Dr Weger also became aware of another medicine which was approved for use with cancer patients in Germany. This medicine is a natural glandular extract consisting of highly refined polypeptides. The poly-peptide extract had shown the ability to increase lymphocytes, reverse weight loss and increase subjective well-being in cancer patients with depressed immune systems.

Dr Weger postulated that the combination of the liquid Eleutherococcus extract and the polypeptide extract would be beneficial for AIDS patients. Since both substances had been shown to be virtually non-toxic, he set about testing the combination in HIV-infected patients.

The combination product was administered to five HIV-infected individuals for four to eight weeks. The results found significant increases in T-helper lymphocyte (CD4 cells) counts averaging 95%! All of the patients showed improved subjective well-being, weight gain, and elimination of diarrhea and respiratory congestion. No side effects were experienced. One patient actually showed a 20 pound weight gain in eight weeks after significant weight loss over the preceding months prior to the study. The combination product was tested during an 18 monthly trail in Tanzania with a larger population of HIV-infected patients. The results of this study were equally impressive.

Thanks to the work and insight of Dr Weger, the combination of Eleutherococcus and the polypeptide extract are being used successfully by several individuals with HIV-infection in this country and abroad. Clinical research continues both in the United States and Africa. The combination product has also found applications with cancer patients as well as individuals suffering from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Thus, while historical application and Russian research point to Eleutherococcus as one of our most effective tools against stress and viral illness, new research has opened the door for its use with populations with chronic illness. It is important to note that the extract used in the Russian studies and later in Dr Weger’s work is a liquid extract of Eleutherococcus. Eleutherococcus senticosus, as opposed to Korean or Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng) can be safely taken by woman without interference of their menstrual cycles or masculinizing effects. When possible, individuals with cancer, HIV-infection, or chronic fatigue syndrome should opt for the combination of the liquid Eleutherococcus and the polypeptides extract.

Dr Donald Brown is a naturopathic physician practicing in Seattle, Washington.

Selected Summary of Research
The citations below represent a few among the thousands of references of the world scientific literature to the ingredients of Prime Products. These selected references are offered as general background to the longstanding widespread use and testing of these ingredients and its purpose is solely informational. No medical advice is given or intended by PrimeQuest. If you have a medical condition or health problem you should seek the advice of your own physician or health professional.
• Brekhman, I.I. and O.I. Kirillov. “The Protective Action of Eleutherococcus during Stress.” in: Eleutherococcus and Other Adaptogens from Far East Plants. Vladivostok: Siberian Department of the Academy of Science of the USSR, 1966. 9.
• Williams, Moira. “Eleutherococcus Senticosus: Bridging the Gap between Alternative and Orthodox.” International Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, April 1992.
• Wanlstrom, Mikael. Adaptogens – Nature’s Key to Well Being. Goteborg: Skandinavisk Bok, 1987.
• Brekhman, I.I. Man and Biologically Active Substances. Oxford: Pergamon Press Ltd., 1980.
• Lupandin, A.V. “Adaptation and Rehabilitation in Sports.” Khabarovsk: Institute of Physical Culture, 1991.
• Koloskov, Yu.B., E.V. Kryukovskaya, E.A. Demurov, and A.N. Kudrin. “The Mechanism of the Adaptogenic Effect of Aralia Mandshurica.” Farmatsiya (Moscow) 39 (4), 1990: 75.
• Brekhman, I.I. “What Can Oppose Stress?” in: Adaptation and Adaptogens. Proceeding of the 2nd Symposium: “Processes of Adaptation and Biologically Active Substances” (May 1975). Vladivostok: Far East Scientific Centre of the Academy of Science of the USSR, 1977, 81.
• Lupandin, A,V. “Adaptation to Extreme Natural and Technogenic Factors in Trained and Untrained People under the Influence of Adaptogens.” Fiziologia Cheloveka 16 (3), 1990: 114 119.
• Lucas, Richard. “Eleuthero – Health Herb of Russia.” Spokane: R&M Books, 1973.
• Panasyuk, E.N., A.Ya. Sklyarov, O.Ya. Chupashko, and A.A. Bezrukov. “Research on the Influence of the Adaptogens, Eleutherococcus and Aralia, on Work Efficiency under Stress Conditions.” in: Actual Problems of Labour Physiology and Preventive Economics (Theses of Reports at the IXth All Union Conference). M., vol. 3, 90.
• Okushko, V.P., I.K. Lutskaya, and S.P. Reva. “The Influence of Eleutherococcus on Resistance to Tooth Decay.” Paper released by M. Gorky Medical Institute, Donetsk, 1989.
• Brekhman, I.I. Eleutherocossus, Leningrad: Nauka, 1968.
• Saratikov, A.S. “Adaptogenic Actions of Eleutherococcus and Rhodiola Rosea Preparations.” in: Processes of Adaptation and Biologically Active Substances – Proceedings of the Conference (VIadivostok, May 1972). Vladivostok: Far East Centre of the Academy of Science of the USSR, 1976.

• Gerasyuta, M.A., and T.N. Koval. “The Experience of Prolonged Use of Leuzea Carthamoides Extract for the Purposes of Preservation and Increase of Mental and Physical Work Capacity.” in: New Data on Eleutherococcus and Other Adaptogens: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Eleutherococcus (Hamburg, 1980). Vladivostok: Far East Scientific Centre of the Academy of Science of the USSR, 1981, 135.
• Brekhman, I.I. “Valeology – The Science of Health.” Moscow: Physical Culture and Sport, 1990.
• Maslova, L.V. “The Cardioprotective Action of Adaptogenic Preparations during Stress.” Paper released by the Scientific Research Institute of Pharmacology of the Tomsk Scientific Centre, Academy of Science of the USSR, 1989.
• Collisson, R.J. “Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus Senticosus Maxim).” British Journal of Phytotherapy 2, vol. 2, 1991.
• Baburin, E.F., I.K. Tarasov, and V.N. Alekseev. “On the Question of the Prophylaxis of Motion Sickness.” in: Medicinal Remedies of the Far East. Vladivostok: Far East Scientific Centre of the Academy of Science of the USSR, 1972. 120.
• Asano, K., T. Takakhasi, Kh. Kugo, and M. Kuboyama. “The Influence of Eleutherococcus on Muscle Work Capacity in Humans.” in: New Data on Eleutherococcus: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Eleutherococcus (Moscow, 1984). Vladivostok: Far East Academy of Science of the USSR, 1986, 166.
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